Showing posts with label LIS STUDY. Show all posts
Showing posts with label LIS STUDY. Show all posts

Wednesday, June 30, 2021



(A set of data that describes and gives information about other data)

Metadata:- Metadata is data that provides information about other data. Data about data is called Metadata. There are many types of Metadata:

1.     Descriptive Metadata

2.     Structural Metadata

3.     Administrative Metadata

4.     Reference Metadata

5.     Statistical Metadata

6.     Legal Metadata


Metadata was traditionally used in the card catalogs of libraries until the 1980s. Metadata was also used to describe digital data using metadata standards.

The first description of “Metadata” for computer systems is purportedly noted by MIT’s Centre for International Studies experts “David Griffel” and “Stuart Mclntosh” in 1967.

·   A the principal purpose of Metadata is to help users to find relevant information and discover resources.

·   Metadata also helps to organize electronic resources, provide digital identification and preservation of resources.

·   Metadata assists users in resource discovery by allowing resources to be found by relevant criteria, identifying resources, bringing similar resources together, distinguishing resources, and giving location information. In many countries, the metadata relating to emails, telephone calls, Web pages, Video traffic, IP connections, and cell phone locations are routinely stored by government organizations.

·   Metadata is defined as the data providing information about one or more aspects of the data. It is used to summarize basic information about data which can make tracking and working with specific data easier.

·  Metadata can be stored and managed in a database, often called a metadata registry or metadata repository.

·   The term “Metadata” was coined in 1968 by Philip Bagley, in his book “ Extension of Programming Language Concepts”.


Types of Metadata:

1)    Descriptive Metadata: Descriptive metadata describes a resource for purposes such as discovery and identification. It can include elements such as title, abstract, author, and keywords, publishers, etc. Descriptive metadata is typically used for discovery and identification as information to search and locate an object.

2)    Structural Metadata: Structural Metadata is metadata about containers of data and indicates how compound objects are put together, for example how pages are ordered to form chapters of a book. It describes the types, versions, relationships, and other characteristics of digital materials. Structural metadata describes how the components of an object are organized.

3)    Administrative Metadata: Administrative Metadata refers to the technical information including file type, or when and how the file was created. Administrative Metadata can be categorized into the following two sub-categories:

I)   Rights Management Metadata: Rights Management Metadata explains intellectual property rights.

II)    Preservation Metadata: Preservation Metadata contains information to preserve and save the resources.

4)    Reference Metadata: Reference Metadata is information about the contents and  quality of Statistical data.

5)    Statistical Metadata: Statistical Metadata also called process data may describe processes that collect, process, or produce statistical data.

6)    Legal Metadata: Legal Metadata provides information about the creator, copyright holder, and public licensing.



1.  Farance, F. and Gillman, D. (2006). The Nature of Data. “Proceedings of the UNECE Workshop on Statistical Metadata, Geneva, Switzerland.

2.  Froeschl, K.A., Grossmann, W., & Del Vecchio, V. (2003). “The Concept of Statistical Metadata”. July 2004

3.   Hand, David J. (1993). “ Data, metadata, and information”. Statistical Journal of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.

4.   Froeschl, K. A., (1997), “Metadata Management in Statistical Information Processing, Vienna.

5.   Sundgren, Bo (1994), “Statistical Metadata- A Tutorial”, Invited paper for the Compstat conference in Vienna.


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Library Assistant

Aryabhatta Knowledge University, Patna


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Sunday, March 21, 2021

Short Note on budgeting Methods

Budgeting Methods and Techniques


(1)Incremental or historical budget- This is the most common type of budget it is also called as Line item budget this budget technique divide item of expenditure line-by-line into a broad categories such as books journals, salaries, allowances, equipments supply etc.

This budget use traditional method it take into account past expenditure on each items and prepare current budget so it is also called historical budget.

This budgeting technique uses 5% to 10% increment of past budget.

(2) Formula Budgeting- This budgeting method look like broad and quick method and save lots of time, in this method formula used for financial estimation and budget justification.











(3) Programme budget- this method proposed in Hoover’s commission report (1949).this budget is extension from line-items method this budget tries to answer this question “for what purpose the money is being spend”.

This budget is prepared on the basis of cost programme and this programme has to continue, modify and delete.

(4) Performance Budget – This method is similar to programme budgeting method it shifts programme to performance this method focus on performance.

Management technique such as cost benefit analysis are used to measure performance

Example-  Data on acquisition of books, cataloguing, classification, man power and material use to perform the task.

(5) Planning programming budgeting system (PPBS)- This budgeting method proposed by United States Department of Defence (USDOD) in 1961. This method is an extension of programme budgeting method and focus on planning, establishment of goal and objective. it involves operation research, system analysis, and cost effectiveness process. this budget is a combination of programme budgeting and performance budgeting.  


(6) Zero Based Budgeting (ZBB) - This method is proposed by peter pyhrr in 1970. This method focus on current situation and activity, it require knowledge of organisation lots of afford and training.

This method is common with PPBS and opposite of to histological budgeting. This budgeting method assume zero for each new programme it forget past budget and start with fresh so this is called zero based budgeting method.




Friday, February 26, 2021

Short Note on Network Topology

Network  Topologies

Mesh Topology- In the mesh topology each device is connected to every other device on the network through a dedicated point-to-point link. Dedicated means that the link only carries data for two connected devices only.


(i)  No data traffic issue there is a dedicated link between two devices which means that the link is only available for those two devices.

(ii)  Mesh topology is secure there is a point-to-point link so unauthorized access is not possible.

(iii) Fault detection is easy.


(i)  Large amount of wire required to connect each system.

(ii)  Each device need to connect to another device, a huge number of I/O  ports must be required.


Star Network - In the star topology network is connected to a central device is called hub, star topology does not allow direct communication between devices, a device must have to communicate through a hub. If one device wants to send data to other device it has to first send data to hub and then hub transmits data to designed device.


(i) Less expensive because each device only need one I/O port.

(ii) Less amount of cable required because each device to connect with hub only.

(iii) Easy to install.


(i) If the hub does down everything goes down, none of the devices can work without a hub.

(ii) hub required regular maintenance.


 Bus Topology-In bus topology there is the main cable and all the devices are connected to this main cable through drop lines. There is a device called tab that connects to the drop line to the main cable since all the data is transmitted over the main cable there is a limit drop line and the distance the main cable can have.


(i) Easy installation, each cable need to connect with backbone cable.

(ii) Fewer cables are required than mesh and star topology.


(i) Difficulty in fault detection


Ring Topology- In the ring topology each device is connected with the two devices on either side of it. There are two dedicated point-to-point links a device has with the device on the other side of it, this structure form a ring bus is known as ring topology.

If the device wants to send data to another device then it sends the data in one direction each device in a ring topology has a repeater if the received data is intended or other devices then repeater forwards this data until the intended device receives it.


(i) Easy to install

(ii)Easy to manage


(i) Data traffic issue because all the data is circulating in a ring.


Hybrid Topology- A combination of two or more topologies is known as hybrid topology.

For example -a combination of star and mesh topology is or star and bus topology are known as hybrid topology.


(i) Easy to install because each cable needs to connect with the backbone cable.

(ii) Fewer cables are required


(i) Difficulty in fault detection


Sunday, February 14, 2021

Colon Classification

Colon classification (CC)


Colon classification is a classification scheme developed by the   S.R. Ranganathan in 1933. It has three versions first one is Rigid Faceted and second is Analytico Synthetic or Freely Faceted and third is Fully Freely Faceted. Colon classification used mixed notation (Alphabet, Capital letter, Small latter, Arabic letter and Colon).

Colon classification scheme has 7 editions:

Edition I

Edition II

Edition III

Rigid Faceted

Edition IV

Edition V

Edition VI

Analytico Synthetic or Freely Faceted 

Edition VII

Fully Freely Faceted


Colon classification classes :

Z        Generalia

1        Universe of Knowledge

2        Library Science

3        Book science

4        Journalism

A        Natural science

B        Mathematics

B 2     Algebra

C        Physics

D        Engineering

E        Chemistry

F        Technology

G        Biology

H        Geology

HX      Mining

I          Botany

J         Agriculture

J1       Horticulture

J2       Feed

J3       Food

J4      Stimulant

J5      Oil

J6       Drug

J7       Fabric

J8       Dye

K        Zoology

KZ      Animal Husbandry

L        Medicine

LZ3    Pharmacology

LZ5    Pharmacopoeia

M       Useful arts

M7     Textiles [material]:[work]

Δ        Spiritual experience and mysticism [religion],[entity]:[problem]

N        Fine arts

ND     Sculpture

NN     Engraving

NQ     Painting

NR     Music

O        Literature

P        Linguistics

Q       Religion

R      Philosophy

S      Psychology

T      Education

U     Geography

V     History

W    Political science

X    Economics

Y    Sociology   


Colon Classification Signs


P  (Personality)

,  (Comma)

M (Matter)

;  (Semi- Colon)

E  (Energy)

;  (Colon)

S  (Space)

.  (Dot)

T  (Time)

.  (Dot)


Some Important Points about Colon Classification


In Edition III   Facet formula is provided for the basic class.

In Edition IV   Fundamental Facet (Fundamental categories) indicator digit was used.

In Edition V  Many changes in schedule.

In Edition VI   Reprint of edition VI in 1963, comma (,) is uses in the position of (.)  

In Edition, VII    Was published by “ Sarda Ranganathan Endowment for Library Science”

  • The index is used in Colon Classification is called the subject index.
  • (=) is used in both Colon Classification (CC) and Universal Decimal Classification (UDC).
  •  Colon Classification has octave notation.
  • Common isolates of CC are Anteriorising common isolate (ACI) and Posteriorising common isolate (PCI)
  • The seventh edition of CC is published by A.K. Neelameghan,  M.A. Gopinath and S.K. Seetharama